Frequently Asked Questions

Which type of pulses can be grown in Pothowar region?

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Chickpea, Lentil and Mash can successfully be grown in this region.   
   

What is the proper time of sowing for the different pulses crops?

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Chickpea and lentil are generally sown from 25 Sept.- 15 Oct. Sowing time for mash crop is whole month of July.  
   
Where from we can get the seed of pulses? Top
Seed of the recommended varieties of chickpea, lentil and mash is available during the sowing season at Barani Agricultural Research Institute, Chakwal.   
   

What are the recommended varieties of chickpea, lentil and mash?

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 Recommended varieties of pulses crops for Pothowar region are as under:
  • Chickpea (desi)
    • Balkassar-2000
    • Wanhar-2000
  • Chickpea (kabuli)
    • Tamman
  • Lentil
    • Chakwal Masoor
  • Mash
    • Mash-97,
    • Chakwal Mash  
 
   
What is the seed rate of different pulses? Top
Generally following seed rates are recommended for Pothowar:
  • Chickpea: 25 to 30 kg/acre
  • Lentil: 08 to 10 kg/acre
  • Mash: 08 to 10 kg/acre
 
   

What are the fertilizer requirements for chickpea, lentil and mash crops for Pothowar region?

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Fertilizer requirements for different pulses are as under:
  • Chickpea: 1.5 bag DAP + 0.5 bag Potassium Sulfate at the time of seed bed preparation.
  • Lentil: 1 bag of DAP + 0.5 bag Potassium Sulfate at the time of seed bed preparation
  • Mash: 1 bag of DAP + 0.5 bag Potassium Sulfate at the time of seed bed preparation
 
   

How can we get better yields from pulses?

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Following are the good rules for getting better yields:
  • Sowing should be done well in time
  • Only recommended varieties should be sown
  • Perform the thinning operation after 8 to 10 days after sowing
  • Control the weeds, insects and diseases at proper time
  • Harvesting and threshing at proper time
 
   

Which weedicide is suitable for chemical control of broad leaves and narrow leaves weeds of wheat crop?

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Weedicides which are commonly used are Buctril–M (For broad leaves) & Puma Supper (For narrow leaves).  
   

Can we grow all types of fruit plants in Pothowar area?

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 Not all, but many types of fruit plants like olive, citrus, grapes, peach, apricot, pear, plum, apple, loquat and almond can successfully be cultivated over here. Only the varieties recommended for this area should be planted.   
   

What is the proper time of plantation for the fruit plants?

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Deciduous plants like peach and grapes are planted from mid January to mid February. Ever green plants like citrus and olive can be planted either during spring season (February/March) or during August / September. Layout of orchard and pit digging must be done two month before the actual plantation  
   

Can we get the fruit plants from any nursery?

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Fruit plants should be obtained from a government nursery or from a reliable source. Never purchase the plants of unknown variety. True to type plants can be obtained from Barani Agricultural Research Institute Chakwal, Orange Research Institute Sargodha and Horticultural Research Institute Faisalabad.   
   

Can other crops be grown within the fruit orchard?

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Deep rooted crops should not be planted in the orchard. Shallow rooted crops like gram, peas, masoor, mash and radish can be planted as inter crop. However, irrigation should be avoided during the flowering period of the fruit plants.    
   

What is the cause of fruit splitting?

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Splitting in fruits usually occurs when the fruits are mature in size and the skin is not expanding.  If heavy rains occur, trees absorb water and force it into the fruits.  The peel cannot expand, and instead splits.  Splitting fruit is also associated with certain varieties.  
   

Why fertilizer is important for crop growth?

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 It improves the soil nutrient status and ultimately the crop yield.   
   

What is balanced fertilization?

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The combination of nutrients like NPK & other micronutrients that fulfill crop requirements and increase crop yield. 
 
   

What are the sources of NPK?

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Urea for Nitrogen, DAP and Nitrophos for Nitrogen and Phosphorus and Potassium sulphate for potassium  
   

What is Soil fertility?

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Soil fertility refers to the strength of soil keeping in view the nutrients.  
   

Why Soil analysis is important?

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 It helps to make better understanding of fertilizer need/requirement and its economic use for healthy and profitable crop production.  
   

How to store moisture in soil?

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Soil moisture through deep ploughing, manuring and gypsum applications.  
   

Why do a huge amount of flowers drop without fruit setting?

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There are different reasons of flower drop:
  • Flower drop is a normal phenomenon; about 98% or more of blossoms fall without forming fruit; this is nature’s way of allowing the tree to produce only what it can support.
  • Blossoms may be knocked off by a forceful wind, heavy rain or hail.
  • Drastic change in watering or feeding practices may cause an upset, which results in flower drop. Maintain a consistent watering schedule through the flowering and young fruit stages, and apply food only according to instructions.  
 
   

Some times the plants bloom but there is no fruit setting. Why?

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Flowers may drop before fruit setting due to one or a combination of different reasons like late spring frost, low soil fertility and improper irrigation.   
   

Why do the young fruits drop from the tree?

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 There may be different reasons of fruit drop:
  • It is normal phenomenon that the tree retains the amount of fruit it can support. 
  •  When this happens after the fruit has attained a good size, it is not considered normal. It may be due to high temperature and low humidity.
 
   
What are the moisture conservation methods in Barani areas? Top
Deep ploughing, Ramhart and deep ploughing with FYM and compost application.  
   
What is the best time of fertilizer application in Barani areas? Top
Fertilizer is applied at the time of sowing.  
   
What are new crops for Barani areas? Top
Quinoa and Camelina (Healy drought Resistance) are new crops for Barani areas.  
   
What is the best time sowing of wheat crop in Barani area? Top
Mid-October to mid-November  
   
Is there new variety of wheat for Barani areas? Top
Ahsan-2016 is new variety  
   
What is the best method of sowing of crops in Barani areas? Top
Drill sowing is the best method of sowing  
   
What is the best time of sowing of gram in Barani areas? Top
Mid-September to mid-October is the best time of sowing of gram in Barani areas.  
   
What is the best time of fertilizer application of any crop in Barani areas? Top
At the time of sowing is the best time of fertilizer application of any crop in Baran  
   
What are recommended new varities of groundnut? Top
BARI-2011 and BARI-2016.  
   
What is the potential and average yield of recommended varities? Top
Potential yield 40 monds/acre and average yield 20 monds/acre.  
   
What is the seed rate of groundnut crop? Top
70 kg pods or 40 kg groundnut grains per acre.  
   
Which soil is suitable for groundnut cultivation? Top
Sandy and loamy sand soils.  
   
What is the best time for sowing? Top
Last week of march to end to may depending upon the availability of the moisture.  
   
What is the recommended depth of seed, plant to plant and row to row distance? Top
Seed depth 5-7 cm, plant to plant distance 15-20cm and row to row distance 45cm.  
   
What is recommended fertilizer doses? Top
½ bag urea + 3.5 SSP + ½ bag potassium sulphate.  
   
When gypsum should be applied? Top
At flowering stage means after 15th July 200kg/acre or 25 kg/kanal.  
   
What is the remedy of hairy caterpillar? Top
Pyrithride group of insecticide should be used.  
   
Which weedicides are best for groundnut? Top
Manual hoeing + use of chemical with the consultation of agri. Experts.  
   
How land should be prepared for wheat sowing ? Top
At the onset of monsoon perform a deep ploughing to conserve moisture in the soil. At the time of sowing, two ploughings with plankings is done for fine preparation of land.  
   
What is optimum time of sowing for rainfed wheat? Top
Best time for sowing in Barani areas is from 25th October to 20th November.  
   
What is best method of sowing for rainfed wheat? Top
Sowing should be done using Rabi Drill keeping row to row distance 9 inches maintaining depth of 1.5 to 2 inches.  
   
What is optimum seed rate for rainfed wheat cultivation? Top
50Kg/acre seed rate is recommended for Barani areas. However, for high tillering varieties like Chakwal-50, the seed rate rate should be reduced upto 5 kg.  
   
What are recommended wheat varities in  rainfed area of Punjab? Top
 Ihsan-2016, Fatehjang-2016, Dharabi-11, Chakwal-50 and BARS-09  
   
How we can save from Kernal Bunt or other seed borne diseases? Top
Seed treatment is necessary for prevention of seed borne diseases. Proper fungicide at the rate of 2g per kg is applied.  
   
What are possible measures to eradicate weeds from wheat field? Top
Weeds compete with the main crop for nutrition, space and water. It may cause losses from 15 to 45 %.  For eradication of weeds chemical and non-chemical methods ( Hoeing, Bar-harrow, Daab Method) are applied in Barani areas.  
   
What are wheat diseases and their control? Top

Wheat Diseases and their Control: The main diseases of wheat are Leaf rust, Yellow Rust and Loose smut in Barani areas. Detail is given as under:
Leaf Rust
Symptoms: Pustules are circular or slightly elliptical, smaller than those of stem rust, do not usually coalesce, and contain masses of orange to orange-brown urediospores. Infection sites are found primarion the upper surfaces of leaves and leaf sheaths, and occasionally on the neck and awns.
Development: Primary infections are usually light and develop from wind-borne urediospores that may have travelled long distances. The disease can develop rapidly when free moisture is available and temperatures are near 20°C. Successive generations of urediospores can be produced every 10-14 days if conditions are favorable. As plants mature, or when environmental conditions are not favorable, masses or black teliospores may become evident.
Hosts/Distribution: Leaf rust can affect wheat, triticale, and many other related grasses. The disease is found wherever temperate cereals are grown. The alternate hosts are Thalictrum, Isopryum, Anemonella, and Anchusa spp.
Importance: Severe early infections can cause significant yield losses, mainly by reducing the number of kernels per spike, test weights, and kernel quality.

Stripe Rust (Yellow Rust) Puccinia striiformis Westend f. sp. tritici
Symptoms: The pustules of stripe rust, which contain yellow to orange-yellow urediospores, usually form narrow stripes on the leaves. Pustules also can be found on leaf sheaths, necks, and glumes.
Development: Primary infections are caused by wind-borne urediospores that may have travelled long distances. The disease may develop rapidly when free moisture (rain or dew) occurs and temperatures range between 10-20°C. At temperatures above 25°C, the production of urediospores is reduced or ceases and black teliospores are often produced.
Host/Distribution: Stripe rust can attack wheat, barley,triticale, and many other related grasses. The disease is found in all highland and/or temperate areas where cereals are grown. No alternate host was known until it was found on common barberry and several other Berberis spp. in 2010 in the USA. The alternate host Berberis vulgaris (European barberry) was historically an important source of inoculum in North America and Europe, but is now rare since the implementation of barberry eradication laws. However, some regions where barberry is common, particularly in East Europe and West Asia, may facilitate continued cyclic rust infection and evolution of new combinations of virulence.
Importance: Severe infections can cause yield losses, mainly by reducing the number of kernels per spike, test weights, and kernel quality.

Loose Smut (Ustilago tritici (Pers.) Rostr.)
Symptoms: The entire inflorescence, except the rachis, is replaced by masses of smut spores. These black teliospores are often blown away by the wind, leaving only the bare rachis and remnants of other floral structures.
Development: Wind-blown teliospores that land on the flowers of wheat plants can germinate and infect the developing embryo of the kernel. The mycelium of the loose smut fungus remains dormant in the embryonic tissues of the kernel until the kernel begins to germinate. The mycelium then develops along with the growing point of the plant, and at flowering time replaces the floral parts of the spike with masses of black spores. Infection and disease development are favored by cool, humid conditions, which prolong the flowering period of the host plant.
Hosts/Distribution: The disease can occur wherever wheat is grown.
Importance: Yield losses depend on the number of spikes affected by the disease; incidence is usually less than one percent and rarely exceeds 30 percent of the spikes in any given location
Control: To prevent from rust diseases resistant varieties is the best solution. For prevention from loose smut, seed treatment with suitable fungicide is the best remedy.